Selected Articles and Preprints by Scott Nicholson

Note - These are not always the final articles as published, but are my last preprint. For the definitive version with page numbers, check the journal or book. (Your local library can help!)

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Games and Gamification

Nicholson, S. (2018). Creating engaging escape rooms for the classroom.Childhood Education 94(1). 44-49.

Monaghan, S., and Nicholson, S. (2017). Bringing escape room concepts to pathophysiology case studies. HAPS Educator 21(2), 49-62.

Nicholson, S. (2016). Ask Why: Creating a Better Player Experience Through Environmental Storytelling and Consistency in Escape Room Design. Paper presented at Meaningful Play 2016, Lansing, Michigan.

Nicholson, S. (2016). The State of Escape: Escape Room Design and Facilities. Paper presented at Meaningful Play 2016. Lansing, Michigan.

Nicholson, S. (2015). Peeking behind the locked door: A survey of escape room facilities. White Paper available at

Nicholson, S. (2015). A RECIPE for Meaningful Gamification. In Wood, L. & Reiners, T., eds. Gamification in Education and Business, New York: Springer. 1-20. Preprint available online at version available at

Nicholson, S. (2014). Exploring the Endgame of Gamification.In Fuchs, M., Fizek, S., Ruffino, P. and Schrape, N. (Eds.) Rethinking Gamification. Meson Press: Lüneburg, Germany.289-303.

Nicholson, S. and Begy, J. (2014, May). A Framework for Exploring Tablet-based Tabletop Games (extended abstract). Presentation at the 2014 Canadian Games Studies Association, St. Catherines, Ontario.

Nicholson, S. (2013). Playing in the Past: A History of Games, Toys and Puzzles in North American Libraries. Library Quarterly 83(4), 341-361.

Nicholson, S. (2013, June). Exploring Gamification Techniques for Classroom Management. Paper Presented at Games+Learning+Society 9.0, Madison, WI

Nicholson, S. (2012, October). Strategies for Meaningful Gamification: Concepts behind Transformative Play and Participatory Museums. Presented at Meaningful Play 2012. Lansing, Michigan.

Nicholson, S. (2012, June). A User-Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful Gamification. Paper Presented at Games+Learning+Society 8.0, Madison, WI.

Nicholson, S. (2012). Completing the Experience: Debriefing in Experiential Educational Games. In the Proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Society and Information Technologies. Winter Garden, Florida: International Institute of Informatics and Systemics. 117-121.

Nicholson, S. (2011). Crossed Paths. (A free interactive storytelling game for libraries or schools). Originally created for the talk, Engagement through Games: Reaching Library Users through Playful Ways. Keynote for 2011 Minnesota Library Association annual conference. Duluth, Minnesota.

Nicholson, S. (2011). Making the Gameplay Matter: Designing Modern Educational Tabletop Games. Knowledge Quest 40(1). 60-65.

Nicholson, S. (2010, Nov. 11). Board Game Starter Kit: Intergenerational Gaming Collection for Under $200.Booklist Online Feature Article.

Nicholson, S. (2010). Join the U.S. National Gaming Day @ Your Library.DigitaleBibliotheek 2(6).

Nicholson, S. (2010). Gaming and literacy: Exploring the Connections. DigitaleBibliotheek 2(4), 42.

Nicholson, S. (2010). Scratch the gaming itch. DigitaleBibliotheek 2(2), 42.

Nicholson, S. (2009). Library Gaming Experiences on a tight budget. DigitaleBibliotheek 1(7), 23.

Nicholson, S. (2009). Creating a Gaming experience in Libraries.DigitaleBibliotheek 1(5), 11.

Nicholson, S. (2009). Why gaming?DigitaleBibliotheek 1(1), 17.

Nicholson, S. (2009). Library Gaming Census Report. American Libraries 40(1-2), 44. (note that the preprint version is edited significantly from the version as published).

Nicholson, S. (2009). Go Back to Start: Gathering Baseline Data about Gaming in Libraries.Library Review. 58(3), 203214.

Nicholson, S. (2008). Games in Libraries: Myths and Realities. NYLA Bulletin 56(4), 3.

Nicholson, S. (2008, August). Reframing gaming. American Libraries. 50-51.

Nicholson, S. (2008). Modern board games: Its not a Monopoly any more.Library Technology Reports 44(3). 8-10, 38-39.

Nicholson, Scott. (2008). Finish your games so you can start your schoolwork: A look at gaming in school libraries. Library Media Connection 26(5), 52-55.

Nicholson, S. (2007). The Role of Gaming in Libraries: Taking the Pulse. White paper.


Nicholson, S. (2012). Completing the Experience: Debriefing in Experiential Educational Games. In the Proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Society and Information Technologies. Winter Garden, Florida: International Institute of Informatics and Systemics. 117-121.

Nicholson, S. (2010). Inviting the world into the online classroom: Teaching a gaming in libraries course via YouTube.Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 51(4).

Nicholson, S. (2006). Writing your first scholarly article: A guide for budding authors in librarianship. Information Technology and Libraries 25(2), 108-111.

Nicholson, S. (2005). A framework for technology selection in a Web-based distance education environment: Supporting community-building through richer interaction opportunities. Journal for Education in Library and Information Science 46(3), 217-233.

Nicholson, S. (2005). Understanding the foundation: The state of generalist search education in library schools as related to the needs of expert searchers in medical libraries. Journal of the Medical Library Association 93(1), 58-65.

Nicholson, S. (2002). Socialization in the "virtual hallway": Instant messaging in the asynchronous Web-based distance education classroom.The Internet and Higher Education 5(4), 363-372.

Bibliomining, Data Mining, and Big Data in Libraries

Nicholson, S. & Smith, C.A. (2007). Using lessons from health care to protect the privacy of library users: Guidelines for the de-identification of library data based on HIPAA. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58(8), 1198-1206.

Nicholson, S. & Lankes, R. D. (2007). The Digital Reference Electronic Warehouse (DREW) Project: Creating the infrastructure for digital reference research through a multi-disciplinary knowledge base.Reference and User Services Quarterly 46(3), 45-59.

Nicholson, S. (2006). Approaching librarianship from the data: Using Bibliomining for evidence-based librarianship.Library Hi-Tech 24(3). 369-375.

Nicholson, S. (2006). The basis for bibliomining: Frameworks for bringing together usage-based data mining and bibliometrics through data warehousing in digital library services. Information Processing & Management 42(3), 785-804.

Nicholson, S. (2006, January 15). Proof is in the Pattern. Library Journal netConnect, Supplement to Library Journal, Winter 2006, 2-6.

Nicholson, S. (2005). Digital library archeology: Understanding library use through artifact-based evaluation.Library Quarterly 75(4). 496-520.

Lavender, K., Nicholson, S., & Pomerantz, J. (2005). Building bridges for collaborative digital reference between libraries and museums through an examination of reference in special collections. Journal of Academic Librarianship 31(2), 106-118.

Nicholson, S. (2005) A framework for Internet Archeology: Discovering use patterns in digital library and Web-based information resources. Short paper for First Monday 10(2).

Lankes, R. D. and Nichoson, S. (2005). Reference Extract: Extending the Reach of Digital Reference through Collaborative Data Warehousing.IEEE Technical Committee on Digital Libraries Bulletin 2(1).

Nicholson, S. (2004). A conceptual framework for the holistic measurement and cumulative evaluation of library services.Journal of Documentation 60(2), 164-182.

Pomerantz, J., Nicholson, S., Belanger, Y., & Lankes, R. D. (2004). The current state of digital reference: Validation of a general digital reference model through a survey of digital reference services.Information Processing & Management. 40(2), 347-363.

Kaarst-Brown, M., Nicholson, S., von Dran, G. & Stanton, J. (2004). Organizational cultures of libraries as a strategic resource. Library Trends. 53(1), 3353.

Nicholson, S. (2003). Bibliomining for automated collection development in a digital library setting: Using data mining to discover web-based scholarly research works.Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(12), 1081-1090.

Nicholson, S. & Stanton, J. (2003). Gaining strategic advantage through bibliomining: Data mining for management decisions in corporate, special, digital, and traditional libraries. In Nemati, H. & Barko, C. (Eds.). Organizational data mining: Leveraging enterprise data resources for optimal performance (pp. 247-262). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.

Pomerantz, J., Nicholson, S., & Lankes, R. D. (2003). Digital reference triage: An investigation using the Delphi method into the factors influencing question routing and assignment.The Library Quarterly 73(2), 103-120.

Nicholson, S. (2003) Avoiding the Great Data-Wipe of Ought-Three: Maintaining an Institutional Record for Library Decision-Making in Threatening Times.American Libraries 34(9), 36.

Nicholson, S. (2003). The bibliomining process: Data warehousing and data mining for library decision-making.Information Technology and Libraries 22(4), 4-9.

Web Search Tools

Nicholson, S., Sierra, T., Eseryel, U. Y., Park, J., Barkow, P., Pozo, E., & Ward, J. (2006). How much of it is real? Analysis of paid placement in Web search engine results. Journal for the American Society of Information Science and Technology 57(4), 448-461.

Nicholson, S. (2000). Raising reliability of Web search tool research through replication and chaos theory.Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(8), 724-729.

Nicholson, S. (2000). A proposal for categorization and nomenclature for Web search tools.Journal of Internet Cataloging 2(3/4), 9-28.

Nicholson, S. (1997). Indexing and abstracting on the World Wide Web: An examination of six Web databases. Information Technology and Libraries 16(2), 73-81.